Bridging psychological type and depth psychology

Editors: Carol Shumate, Mark Hunziker, Jenny Soper, Lori Green, Olivia Ireland (Art Editor), and Erin Temple

Next Issue: July

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Personality Type in Depth was created in 2010 by Carol Shumate and Mark Hunziker to publish scholarship that bridges the gap between psychological type and depth psychology. In 2017, Hunziker introduced the term depth typology for this field of study, which explores the interaction of the conscious and unconscious aspects of psychological type, as conceived of by C. G. Jung. Articles undergo rigorous review and are edited by professional editors and writers. In keeping with its educational mission, subscription is free, and all issues are accessible to the public online. This not-for-profit philosophy is currently being formalized through application for 501(c)3 nonprofit status, and as part of the legal process, we are also establishing the “Depth Typology Center” (see Advisors below), whose mission is to promote research and education relating to depth typology theory and practice, with the aim of assembling a widely accessible, comprehensive archive of scholarship and a network of practical resources.


Carol Shumate, PhD (ENFP), edited her first book at age 17, This USA by Ben Wattenberg and Richard Scammon (Doubleday), and has edited numerous publications for scientific and scholarly organizations including Patient Care magazine, the Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering, Duke University Office of Public Affairs, and the University of North Carolina Law School. She teaches psychological type at Pacifica Graduate Institute, and has also taught at the University of Connecticut, Eastern Connecticut State University, and Yale University. Her method of teaching type aims to show students that the inner Self is much larger and more capable than they may have realized (“The Eightfold Way of Teaching Psychological Type,” Journal of Analytical Psychology, December 2021). Her book, Projection and Personality Development via the Eight-Function Model (Routledge 2021), synthesizes decades of research on the unconscious functions of Jungian typology.

Mark Hunziker (INTJ) is a teacher, coach, consultant, and author who specializes in team building and personal development. His most recent book, Depth Typology: C. G. Jung, Isabel Myers, John Beebe and the Guide Map to Becoming Who We Are (2016), has received enthusiastic endorsements from Jungian analysts and personality type practitioners alike. His 2006 book, Building Blocks of Personality Type coauthored with Leona Haas, is a staple of personality type training programs. He is the founder of Wellness Resources of Vermont, through which he provides coaching and counseling services to individuals and training and human resource development assistance to businesses, government agencies, and nonprofits of all sizes. Mark is a certified personality type Master Practitioner, has served as Health and Wellness Interest Area Consultant to the Association for Psychological Type International, and has trained fellow type professionals and presented before many business and professional organizations.

Jenny Soper (INFJ) has an honors degree in English from the University of Manchester in the U.K. and a post-graduate certificate in careers advising from Manchester Metropolitan University. She is a National Certified Counselor (NCC) and a licensed clinical mental health counselor (LCMHC)  in North Carolina. She has used her knowledge of Jung, psychological type, and insights gained from depth typology while employed by nonprofits (coordinating career services and providing career counseling at the Women’s Center of Raleigh), in the education sector (offering customized writing and study skills strategies to college students), and in private practice (career counseling, resume preparation, and editing). Jenny is MBTI certified; treasurer of the Association for Psychological Type International (APTi) chapter in Durham, NC; and a recipient of the Type in Education Award from APTi. She has published in both the APTi Bulletin and Personality Type in Depth, where she is a co-editor and particularly enjoys helping writers get their articles ready for publication.

Lori Green (INFJ) is an author, speaker, and consultant who helps coach our authors and also narrates all articles on our podcast. She uses a Jungian model to help individuals discover emotional wellbeing and live more soulfully.  A former high school English teacher, she joined the PTD editorial board in 2018 after completing her master’s at Pacifica Graduate Institute in depth psychology. Lori’s enthusiasm for teaching is evident in a variety of online courses she has created around such depth psychological topics as dreams, archetypes, and meditative practices for engaging the psyche’s language of symbol and image. Her recent book, Outlier: The Moon as Guide to Source and Stillness, is now a year-long digital course as well. She is developing a series that explores how the court cards of the archetypal tarot link to the sixteen personality types. Lori’s current project is an e-course that explores the intersection of depth psychology and the quantum field through the imagery of Alice in Wonderland  (

Art editor Olivia Ireland (ENFP), is professionally trained in graphic and architectural design, color theory, fine art and applied arts, and art history, and is also experienced in digital photography, videography, and web design. She champions innate creativity as the operative principle in personal healing, growth, and transformation as a professional astrologer. Her life’s work is to support people courageously, skillfully, and creatively engaging with their own life experience through joyful creative expression, and she shares her own work on Instagram. Based now in Washington state, she has extensive, wide-ranging training in a multitude of creative fields over the past twenty-five years, including writing, art and design, somatics, and depth psychology. She holds a Harvard degree in the humanities and creative writing, is a certified advanced Soma Neuromuscular Integration somatic practitioner, and earned a master’s degree in Jungian and archetypal psychology from Pacifica Graduate Institute, where she conducted research on imaginative and mythological approaches to chronic stress.

Contributing editor Erin Temple (ENFP) is a PhD student in English literary studies at the Ohio State University. In the past, she taught English courses at Durham Technical Community College in North Carolina and tutored in the Writing Centers at both Durham Tech and Wake Tech. She received her master’s degree in history and literature from Columbia University and undergraduate degrees in Music and English from UNC-Chapel Hill. Erin currently studies narrative theory and nineteenth-century British literature with a special emphasis on women writers and film adaptations.

Past editor Christopher Ross, PhD (ENTJ), is a clinical psychologist in private practice in Waterloo, Ontario specializing in psychotherapy and psychotherapy supervision. He is Emeritus Associate Professor in Psychology and Religion in the Department of Religion and Culture of Wilfrid Laurier University, and adjunct faculty at Martin Luther University College. Chris coauthored Personality, Religion and Leadership: The Spiritual Dimensions of Psychological Type Theory with Leslie Francis.


Depth Typology Center Advisors

Ann Scott Root (INFP) is the originator of the concept of the Depth Typology Center, and her seminal vision guides its development. Her approach as a coach, consultant, and trainer melds psychodynamic, person-centered, positive, and depth psychology orientations with psychological type. Her practice, Thrive Dynamics, utilizes her decades of experience in sales, marketing, and management to support leaders, teams, career advancers, students, and families. Based in Los Angeles, she holds an MA in counseling psychology and is a CCE Board Certified Coach (BCC), a certified MBTI® Master Practitioner, and a certified MMTIC® practitioner.

Bill Solomon (ISFP) spearheads the process of acquiring non-profit status for the Depth Typology Center and oversees other legal and financial matters. He is vice president of finance for the Meadows Mental Health Policy Institute which provides mental health policy guidance to legislators and government agencies in the state of Texas. Previously he served as chief financial officer for the Dallas Foundation, where he directed the financial reporting, investing, compliance and information technology activities of the organization. Bill also brings considerable knowledge of and enthusiasm for Beebe’s eight-function model and other frontiers of type.

Richard Owen (INTJ) brings experience as a Trustee board member of the British Association for Psychological Type (BAPT) to the establishment of the Depth Typology Center. A theorist and coach practitioner from the UK, he integrates psychodynamic typology and other approaches to work with clients’ personal, relationship, and career development. He holds an MSc in organizational psychology, a diploma in transformational coaching, and accreditations in both trait- and type-based assessment tools. He is researching his Personality Parts™ system to expand on existing ideas about the eight functions and archetypal complexes (