Bridging psychological type and depth psychology

Editors: Carol Shumate, Mark Hunziker, Jenny Soper, Lori Green, Olivia Ireland (Art Editor), and Erin Temple

Next Issue: July

Question of the Day

Do you agree with Jungian analyst John Giannini (and others) that ESTJ is “the dominant typology of western culture?”  Do you think this may be changing?  Do you see major, typologically distinct subcultures? What do you see as the dominant typology of other cultures or countries?




    I lived in Brazil for 22 years and I started my journey with Jungian theory while living there. Although I have not done widespread application in Brazil, I was really surprised at how many ENFPs I seemed to come up with. It could be that since I worked with many pastors that this could explain part of the oversampling, however in my work among Brazilians I find the culture to be more perception oriented rather than judging. Extroverted Intuition is really common in meetings which I found entertaining since I am an INFP! If there are any Brazilians reading this please feel free to prove me wrong.
    As far as the United States is concerned I would agree with the SJ at least. Our culture seems to be over achieving. In general closure is much more important than what I observed in Brazil. Our high demand for productivity seems to have pushed us to be more sensing/detail oriented. I wonder if we will see a shift in this as the next “video” generation begins to spread its wings more.

  • Western culture cannot be seen as an entity. I think that the US, the UK and several other Western countries could be described as ESTJ. Sweden, where I live, is more of an F culture.(Consensus is valued, avoidance of conflicts is typical etcetera.) This fits in well with Geert Hofstede´s finding that the Swedish culture is strong on the feminine dimension whereas e g the US and the UK are stronger on the masculine dimension.

  • The trained, expected type within corporate America may well be ESTJ – as I can confirm from intensive training in US professional services firms. Evaluations were based on precisely the logical, evidence-based, outgoing, completer-finisher behaviour that would flow naturally from ESTJ types. Therefore, people will appear to be this way in order to get on and succeed. (As a different type, I managed but burnt out after 10 years.)My concern would be that many people are unhappy within such an expected culture, and so the leadership of our nations and corporations needs to embrace other types. We have seen hints of this from Obama and Cameron, which I applaud. The new technology generation are much more P oriented and this now seems to be the expected type within teenage peer groups – frequent changes of plan and no agreed decisions until the last possible moment! Will they cope in the workplace?

  • I live in Scotland in the UK and I have noticed the strong position Ne holds in our culture. All through history Scots have shown a particular skill and reverence for Ne activities eg. inventors, poets, entrepreneurs, explorers. In my opinion, this a result of Scotland being a very small nation with the large and aggresive neighbour England, which is more Te, and so the key to survival in this hostile diplomatic environment lay in the ability of Scots to find creative, new solutions to hostilities as brute force simply was not an option against such a behemoth.
    Even as part of the union scots manipulated bureaucracy, politics and, in the case of Robert Burns, the hearts and minds of the people to ensure Scotland got fair treatment under a government that was always attempting to pull the union relationship into a kind of apartheid discrimanating toward the Celtic nations. In short, using the power of words in new ways to aquire influence without the full realisation of the far more physically powerful entity. Even today Scots polititions still play this game with the British government to insure decent rights for the people.

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